Saturday, 26 January 2013

Unidentified Submerged Object

More than 100 years later, the crew was exploring the ocean sightings confused with an unidentified object that emerged from the sea and fly at high speeds. Objects like this are then given the nickname Unidentified Submerged Object (USO) or unidentified underwater attractions. Many believe that the mysterious object was the same with UFOs are often seen in the air. Therefore, sometimes this object is also often referred to as UFO water.

USO sightings were said to have existed since thousands of years ago.
In 329 BC, Alexander the troops called sublime encounter two disc-shaped object emerging from the river Jaxartes in india. According to legend, Alexander was so fascinated with the sighting was that he spent the next six years to explore the river by divers equipment in the world.
Christopher Columbus also called've encountered an unknown underwater object. On October 11, 1492, the Santa Maria were boarded by Columbus were passing through the Bermuda Triangle area. Later, they saw strange lights flickering in the water followed by the emergence of a disc-shaped object that immediately fly quickly into the sky.
No one can be sure what is seen by Alexander noble or Columbus. Hundreds of years later, we returned to find many reports of similar sightings. Examples such as the testimonies below:
On June 18, 1845, Malta Times reported:
"At that time the ship brigantine Victoria is about 900 miles to the east of Adalia when the crew saw three luminous objects emerge from the water. Objects were visible for about 10 minutes and fly-half mile from the ship. "
According to the crew who witnessed it, the objects looked like the size of a full moon. This sighting was also reported by other witnesses from Adalia, Syrians and Malta.
On 12 November 1887, near the cape Race, a huge fireball rising from the sea, up to 20 meters, and then approached a ship that was nearby, the British steamer called Siberian. Objects were moving into the wind, then retreat and flew away. This event is reported and discussed by Nature magazine, L'Astronomie, and the Meteorological Journal.
On the night of February 10, 1951 a U.S. Air Force pilot was flying the plane and colleagues from Iceland towards Newfoundland. When the plane is at a distance of about 300 miles from Newfoundland, they saw a luminous object emerged from the sea.
"As we get closer to a shiny object, he turns into circles large white light on the water. Then, we saw a circle of yellow light which was small, smaller than the object that releases light circle, at a distance of 15 miles. When the object flew our plane, we could see a plane that releases domed corona. "

7 years later, an unidentified underwater object back to the subject of the news.
In May 1958, a mysterious submarine seen by the crews of warships Argentina. The submarine, although it can be seen by the eye, can not be detected by sonar, hydrophones or radar. 14 warships Argentina and then chase it with occasional submarine fired a torpedo at him. But do not look for signs of damage and the submarine proceeded to disappear from the radar.
In October 1959 and January 1960, a similar submarine again monitored by the Argentine military. The hunt resumed, but the submarine was again disappeared.
Ray.M Captain Pitts, a submarine warfare specialist who participated in the third race confirmed that the object was indeed a submarine. But he also said that he was forbidden to talk further about the incident.
In 1963, the hunt for another USO re-occur. This time the American submarine sonar was in Puerto Rico capture a moving object with a speed of 150 knots and is at a distance of 20,000 feet below the submarine.
The submarine object followed for 4 days. On day 4, the object suddenly moving at high speed so as to escape observation sonar.
In August 1965, the crew of the Russian Raduga, while sailing in the Red Sea, saw an elliptical object volcano emerged from the water and floated on the surface for some time. Object distance is just 2 miles from the ship. The crew estimated that the object has a diameter of 60 meters and hovered at an altitude of about 150 meters above sea level.
On June 30, 1967, the crew Naviero of Argentina saw a cylindrical object in the water. Objects that give off light blue white and estimated to be about 33 meters long. The strange thing is, the object made no sound at all even though he is moving in the water at speeds high enough. In fact almost no waves created by the movement of the object. When the object was almost hit Naviero ship, he quickly changed direction and dived back into the water.
In 1967, the witnesses consisted of a dozen people saw an unidentified object falling into the water in Shag Harbour, Nova Scotia, Canada. Object, which looks like a strange aircraft, estimated to have a length of about 18 meters. Witnesses also said that the plane was flying for a while, remove the orange light, and into the water.
This incident was reported by media outlets around the world to lead the Canadian military and the police did an extensive search. However, the mysterious plane was not found at all.

The incident Shag Harbour UFO incident is one of the most famous in the world.

One of the event's most bizarre encounter USO, probably related to the Volga boat.

On October 7, 1977, Volga, a Russian ship that is used to repair submarines, was in the sea due to a call to fix a submarine. Suddenly ninth round object seen emerging from the water and immediately surrounding it. This event lasts for 18 minutes. At that moment, the entire communication systems in the Volga impaired. Tarantino captain who led immediately ordered the crew to observe such objects:

"I want you to observe the object carefully and remember it well! I also want you to draw it so that when we return to the Soviets, no one can say that the captain is crazy and drunk guys! "

On July 26, 1980, the sailors of the ship Brazil, Caioba-Seahorse, saw a round object is gray with a diameter of about 10 meters was gliding across the water. At the same time, a bright light appeared on the horizon and approaching object. Then, all equipment on board died suddenly. The light was then joined with the USO in the water. After that, the USO was up, hovered for a moment and flying high into the sky.

One of the most spectacular sightings of USO is probably what happened on June 14, 1992. Witnesses in California, said she saw hundreds of strange aircraft appeared from the sea without making a sound. This sighting is then immediately reported to the police. However, because of the nature of that unusual sightings, the police did not follow up on this report. The story of California's sighting ever raised by the History Channel in a documentary.

To this day, no one could give an explanation as to the identity of the objects.


For those who believe in the existence of extraterrestrial intelligent, USO is evidence that extraterrestrials actually continuously monitor Earth from headquarters created in the sea. If indeed there is an alien who intends to make the headquarters of the earth, then their choice to make in the sea to be a good choice because it is largely unexplored ocean we really are.
Ivan T Sanderson, in his book Invisible Resident (1970) states that the USO is evidence of another intelligence is developing underwater civilization.
"If indeed there is a kind of superior technological civilization developed in the planet under the water, then this civilization seems to be more advanced than our civilization, about a few million maybe even billions of years ahead of us."
Of course, this argument can not be proved. However, Sanderson was not alone because this understanding is also believed by many.
For those who are more skeptical, an explanation of these appearances may vary from one view to engineering. It can not be denied if there is a possibility of the crew has seen a natural phenomenon and guessed the USO. Something like this happens in many cases of UFO sightings. But the question is, what natural phenomena have characteristics in accordance with the description of the reports of witnesses?
This is still not confirmed.
Some others believe that the USO is actually often seen speeding torpedo. However, the torpedo did not fly into the air. It does not fit the description of a witness.
So, others proposed the theory that the USO is actually a sophisticated military aircraft.
This theory is also often used to explain reports of UFO sightings. If we associate the USO to military aircraft, then that means only one: the plane must be an aircraft capable of diving into the water and then fly quickly.
Interestingly, these aircraft apparently never existed, at least in prototype form.
In 1934, Boris Petrovich Ushakov, an engineering student from Soviet military academy, filed a flight plan that can dive in the water. The aircraft is intended to ambush the enemy ship passing by way of diving at a certain depth, wait for enemy ships and enemy ships fired a torpedo when it passes over it. The concept of Ushakov was never made because they are not effective.
30 years later, the idea Ushakov realized by Donald Reid, an engineer at North American Aviation. He made the aircraft in 1963 and was named Reid Flying Submarine (RFS-1). Remarkably, Reid made the design by using a former aircraft parts and do it only in his spare time.
In the first trial, the aircraft was able to fly up to a height of 10 feet, landing in the water and dive to a depth of several meters. Although it looks promising, the military did not seem interested in making the plane to RFS-1 ended only as a prototype.

However, make no mistake. The U.S. military is not interested in the RFS-1 is not because they do not realize the benefits, but because they themselves are making similar aircraft called the Convair which later often called subplane. According to Eugene Handler, an engineer of the navy, the aircraft is ideal to attack Soviet ships in the Baltic Sea and the Caspian. However, Convair apparently fared the same as RFS-1. In fact, Convair had not made ​​a prototype for Congress canceled the project in 1966.

Desire on similar aircraft USO never faded from the minds of the American military. In 2008, DARPA, the Pentagon's research agency, announced that it has initiated a project of the subplane. In the year 2010, this aircraft has been entered into the stage of submission of proposals for various design has been accepted by them.

Within a few years, it looks like we'll see a lot of USO pacing on the high seas.

Could USO seen by the sailors are proprietary advanced military aircraft?

If we believe it, then the next question is whether at the time of World War I and II, the military (any country) have managed to make it as sophisticated aircraft?

If this question can be answered, then I think the answer is to explain a lot of questions about UFO sightings around the world.

Skull like Alien Found In Mexico

Skull with a shape resembling strange alien face discovered on the site of El Cemeterio, Mexico. Villagers Onavas, found the skull in 1999 in a tomb 1,000 years old when it was building irrigation canals.

This is a pre-Hispanic cemetery was first discovered in Mexico. El Cemeterio own site containing the remains of 25 human burials. 13 of them have what is called a deformation of the skull (skull defect), in which the elongated shape and tapered at the back of the head, and five teeth had been mutilated.
The researchers concluded, although it resembles an alien skull, but actually it is the practice of human skull deformation. Skull deformation children when they grow up is common in Central America.
Teeth grinding of teeth being mutilated like an odd shape. While the deformation of the skull they distort normal skull growth. One way to use a cloth to bind the wood boards on their heads.
"Deformation of the skull are used by different people with many different purposes. As ritual practices, tools to differentiate status within a group or to distinguish between social groups," says researcher Cristina García Moreno, an archaeologist at Arizona State University.
However, the reason why the people in El Cemeterio practice cranial deformation, exact purpose remains unknown. Several skeletons were found with earrings, nose rings, bracelets, pendants, and necklaces made of shells and snails from the Gulf of California.
One man was buried with a turtle shell on the chest. The reason why some people are buried many accessories while others do not, is still a mystery.
The experts until now continues to conduct research to determine the total size of the cemetery and hope to find more graves. So it can provide information on local funeral customs.
"With this new information, we hope to determine whether there is an interaction between the community and the Mesoamerican and how and when it happened," said García.
García and his colleagues completed a study of the skeletal remains in November and plan to submit their research to one of the journal American Antiquity Latin American Antiquity or journal.

Friday, 25 January 2013

Apa Itu Kearifan Lokal ?

Sebelum membahas pendapat saya mengenai kearifan lokal, lebih baik saya jelaskan apa arti dari kearifan lokal itu sendiri. Pasti diantara kalian para pembaca belum begitu mengerti apa sebenarnya yang dimaksud dengan kearifan lokal itu ? Apakah itu sebuah makanan ? Atau sebuah mainan ? yang jelas bukan keduanya. Karena pengertian kearifan lokal yang sebenarnya adalah sebagai berikut :

Kearifan lokal, terdiri dari dua kata yaitu kearifan (wisdom) atau kebijaksanaan dan lokal (local) atau setempat. Jadi kearifan lokal adalah gagasan setempat yang bersifat bijaksana, penuh kearifan, bernilai baik, yang tertanam dan diikuti oleh anggota masyarakatnya.

Menurut Gobyah nilai terpentingnya adalah kebenaran yang telah mentradisi atau ajeg dalam suatu daerah. Secara konseptual, kearifan lokal dan keunggulan lokal merupakan kebijaksanaan manusia yang bersandar pada filosofi nilai-nilai, etika, cara-cara dan perilaku yang melembaga secara tradisional.

Menurut Antariksa (2009), kearifan lokal merupakan unsur bagian dari tradisi-budaya masyarakat suatu bangsa, yang muncul menjadi bagian-bagian yang ditempatkan pada tatanan fisik bangunan (arsitektur) dan kawasan (perkotaan) dalam geografi kenusantaraan sebuah bangsa. Dari penjelasan beliau dapat dilihat bahwa kearifan lokal merupakan langkah penerapan dari tradisi yang diterjemahkan dalam artefak fisik. Hal terpenting dari kearifan lokal adalah proses sebelum implementasi tradisi pada artefak fisik, yaitu nilai-nilai dari alam untuk mengajak dan mengajarkan tentang bagaimana ‘membaca’ potensi alam dan menuliskannya kembali sebagai tradisi yang diterima secara universal oleh masyarakat, khususnya dalam berarsitektur. Nilai tradisi untuk menselaraskan kehidupan manusia dengan cara menghargai, memelihara dan melestarikan alam lingkungan. Hal ini dapat dilihat bahwa semakin adanya penyempurnaan arti dan saling mendukung, yang intinya adalah memahami bakat dan potensi alam tempatnya hidup; dan diwujudkannya sebagai tradisi.

Definisi kearifan lokal secara bebas dapat diartikan nilai-nilai budaya yang baik yang ada di dalam suatu masyarakat. Hal ini berarti, untuk mengetahui suatu kearifan lokal di suatu wilayah maka kita harus bisa memahami nilai-nilai budaya yang baik yang ada di dalam wilayah tersebut. Kalau mau jujur, sebenarnya nilai-nilai kearifan lokal ini sudah diajarkan secara turun temurun oleh orang tua kita kepada kita selaku anak-anaknya. Budaya gotong royong, saling menghormati dan tepa salira merupakan contoh kecil dari kearifan lokal.

Berdasarkan definisi-definisi di atas saya membuat definisi dengan pendapat saya sendiri. Menurut saya sendiri, kearifan lokal adalah sesuatu yang memiliki nilai-nilai budaya yang baik yang sebenarnya sudah diajarkan semenjak lama dari nenek moyang kita terdahulu. ^_^

Prinsip-Prinsip Sosial Kemasyarakatan dan Pengaruhnya Terhadap Kemandirian Bangsa

Setuju ngga sih kalo kepribadian bangsa itu tercermin dari prinsip apa yang mau dianut dan dipakai  oleh masyarakat yang menghuni atau menduduki bangsa tersebut ? So, ini seperti peribahasa buah ngga akan jatuh jauh dari pohonnya, yang berarti kepribadian bangsa itu ya emang ga akan jauh-jauh dari sikap-sikap yang ada di masyarakatnya. Oke kalo cuma ngomongin sesuatu yang ngga penting seperti diatas mungkin kita ga akan ngerti, saya akan jelaskan salah satu prinsip masyarakat yang ada di dunia ini. Masyarakat Madani, kalian semua pasti udah sering denger kata-kata itu, yang pastinya di Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan. Setiap bangsa pasti ingin menggunakan prinsip masyarakat madani ini, Kenapa ?? yuk kita lihat Kenapa Prinsip Masyarakat Madani sangat diinginkan oleh bangsa-bangsa yang ada di dunia ini.

Pengertian Masyarakat Madani

Masyarakat Madani adalah masyarakat yang beradab, menjunjung tinggi nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, serta masyarakat yang maju dalam penguasaan ilmu pengetahuan, dan teknologi.

Itu tadi pengertian umum dari masyarakat madani, berikut ini ada beberapa pengertian masyarakat madani menurut para ahli :
  • Menurut Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia, masyarakat madani adalah masyarakat yang menjunjung tinggi norma, nilai-nilai, dan hukum yang ditopang oleh penguasaan teknologi yang beradab, iman dan ilmu.
  • Menurut Syamsudin Haris, masyarakat madani adalah suatu lingkup interaksi sosial yang berada di luar pengaaruh negara dan model yang tersusun dari lingkungan masyarakat paling akrab seperti keluarga, asosiasi sukarela, gerakan kemasyarakatan dan berbagai bentuk lingkungan komunikasi antar warga masyarakat.
  • Menurut Nurcholis Madjid, masyarakat madani adalah masyarakat yang merujuk pada masyarakat Islam yang pernah dibangun Nabi Muhammad SAW di Madinah, sebagai masyarakat kota atau masyarakat berperadaban dengan ciri antara lain : egaliteran(kesederajatan), menghargai prestasi, keterbukaan, toleransi dan musyawarah.
  • Menurut Ernest Gellner, Civil Society atau Masyarakat Madani merujuk pada mayarakat yang terdiri atas berbagai institusi non pemerintah yang otonom dan cukup kuat untuk dapat mengimbangi Negara.
  • Menurut Cohen dan Arato, Civil Society atau Masyarakat Madani adalah suatu wilayah interaksi sosial diantara wilayah ekonomi, politik dan Negara yang didalamnya mencakup semua kelompok-kelompok sosial yang bekerjasama membangun ikatan-ikatan sosial diluar lembaga resmi, menggalang solidaritas kemanusiaan, dan mengejar kebaikan bersama (public good).
  • Menurut Muhammad AS Hikam, Civil Society atau Masyarakat Madani adalah wilayah-wilayah kehidupan sosial yang terorganisasi dan bercirikan antara lain kesukarelaan (voluntary), keswasembadaan (self-generating), keswadayaan (self-supporing),dan kemandirian yang tinggi berhadapan dengan negara, dan keterikatan dengan norma-norma dan nilai-nilai hukum yang diikuti oleh warganya.
  • Menurut M. Ryaas Rasyid, Civil Society atau Masyarakat Madani adalah suatu gagasan masyarakat yang mandiri yang dikonsepsikan sebagai jaringan-jaringan yang produktif dari kelompok-kelompok sosial yang mandiri, perkumpulan-perkumpulan, serta lembaga-lembaga yang saling berhadapan dengan negara.
Sedangkan Masyarakat Madani dalam Islam silahkan kalian baca dibawah ini.
Istilah masyaakat madani itu sebenarnya merujuk pada masyarakat Islam yang pernah dibangun nabi Muhammad di negeri Madinah. Perkataan Madinah dalam bahasa arab dapat dipahami dari dua sudut pengertian. Pertama, secara konvensional kata madinah dapat bermakna sebagai “kota”, dan kedua, secara kebahasaan dapat berarti “peradaban”; mskipun di luar ata “madaniyah” tersebut, apa yang disebut peradaban juga berpadanan dengan kata “tamaddun” dan “hadlarah”.

Sebelumnya, apa yang dikenal sebagai kota madinah itu adalah daerah yang bernama Yatsrib. Nabi-lah yang kemudian mengubah namanya menjadi Madinah, setelah hijrah ke kota itu. Perubahan nama Yatsrib menjadi Madinah pada hakikatnya adalah sebuah proklamasi untuk mendirikan dan membangun masyarakat berperadaban di kota itu. Dasar-dasar masyarakat madani inilah, yang tertuang dalam sebuah dokumen “Piagam Madinah” yang didalamnya menyangkut antara lain wawasan kebebasan, terutama di bidang agama dan ekonomi, tanggung jawab social dan politik, serta pertahanan, secara bersama.

Di kota Madinah-lah, Nabi membangun masyarakat berperadaban berlandaskan ajaran Islam, masyarakat yang bertaqwa kepada Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa. Semangat ketaqwaan yang dalam dimensi vertical untuk menjamin hidup manusia, agar tidak jatuh hina dan nista.

Inilah beberapa ciri-ciri daripada penganut prinsip masyarakat madani :

Ciri-Ciri Masyarakat Madani
  1. Menjunjung tinggi nilai, norma, dan hukum yang ditopang oleh iman dan teknologi.
  2. Mempunyai peradaban yang tinggi ( beradab ).
  3. Mengedepankan kesederajatan dan transparasi ( keterbukaan ).
  4. Free public sphere (ruang publik yang bebas)
Ruang publik yang diartikan sebagai wilayah dimana masyarakat sebagai warga negara memiliki akses penuh terhadap setiap kegiatan publik, warga negara berhak melakukan kegiatan secara merdeka dalam menyampaikan pendapat, berserikat, berkumpul serta mempublikasikan pendapat, berserikat, berkumpul serta mempublikasikan informasi kepada publik.
  1. Demokratisasi
Menurut Neera Candoke, masyarakat sosial berkaitan dengan wacana kritik rasional masyarakat yang secara ekspisit mensyaratkan tumbuhnya demokrasi., dalam kerangka ini hanya negara demokratis yang mampu menjamin masyarakat madani. Demokratisasi dapat terwujud melalui penegakkan pilar-pilar demokrasi yang meliputi : 1) Lembaga Swadaya Masyarakat (LSM) 2) Pers yang bebas 3) Supremasi hokum 4) Perguruan Tinggi 5) Partai politik
  1. Toleransi
Toleransi adalah kesediaan individu untuk menerima pandangan-pandangan politik dan sikap sosial yang berbeda. Toleransi merupakan sikap yang dikembangkan dalam masyarakat madani untuk menunjukan sikap saling menghargai dan menghormati pendapat serta aktivitas yang dilakukan oleh orang atau kelompok masyarakat yang lain yang berbeda.
  1. Pluralisme
Pluralisme adalah sikap mengakui dan menerima kenyataan disertai sikap tulus bahwa masyarakat itu majemuk. Kemajemukan itu bernilai positif dan merupakan rahmat tuhan.
  1. Keadilan Sosial (Social justice)
Keadilan yang dimaksud adalah keseimbangan dan pembagian yang proporsional antara hak dan kewajiban setiap warga dan negara yang mencakup seluruh aspek kehidupan.
  1. Partisipasi sosial
Partisipasi sosial yang benar-benar bersih dari rekayasa merupakan awal yang baik bagi terciptanya masyarakat madani. Partisipasi sosial yang bersih dapat terjadi apabila tersedia iklim yang memunkinkan otonomi individu terjaga.
  1. Supermasi hukum
Penghargaan terhadap supermasi hukum merupakan jaminan terciptanya keadilan, keadilan harus diposisikan secara netral, artinya tidak ada pengecualian untuk memperoleh kebenaran di atas hukum.

Itulah kenapa prinsip masyarakat madani sangat di inginkan oleh semua bangsa di dunia. Sekarang mari kita berandai-andai apabila bangsa yang kita duduki ini menganut prinsip masyarakata seperti itu, kita bisa bayangkan bangsa ini akan menjadi tentram dan damai. Sehingga cita-cita bangsa ini bisa tercapai.
Semoga aja yah... ^_^

Sumber : Google